• GLOSSARY

Polished Finish

A very high reflection. In order to achieve this, the stone must go through a refinishing process with diamond abrasives ranging from three to six steps of abrasive levels. This is also referred to as honing. The shine in the stone comes from the natural reflection (density) of the stone’s crystals. The final polish is created by a very high diamond abrasive such as 8,000 grit, polishing bricks, or polishing powders. This is not a topical coating. These techniques are performed by the quarries, fabricators, and stone restorers. Polished finishes tend to scratch, wear and etch easily. However they are very beautiful.

Honed Finish

This process is basically the same as the polished finish, but without the final shine. Levels of honed finish range from no reflection to a smooth satin finish, or a patina. The range depends on the abrasives and the type (density) of the stone. Some honed finishes will lack color, that may be restored with color enhancing sealers. Honed finishes are recommended in high traffic areas, due to their resistance to scratches and wear.

Tumbled Finish

The surface and edges appear to be rough and textured. Ideal for rustic settings. Most sizes range from 3″X3″ to 6″x6″ tiles. The look of Tumbled finishes is further improved by color enhancing sealers.

Flamed

The process of heating the stone until the crystals crack and create a natural texture finish. Ideal for commercial flooring due to its slip resistance.

Antique

An antique finish is similar to the honed, tumble, or flamed finish; however, it should appear to have a slight sheen. Symbolizing stone that was originally was installed rough and raw. Over time, the sheen/patina was formed from foot traffic. Some stones can be stained with dark tints and waxes for an Old World traditional look. Other stones are intentionally distressed and stained similar to wood to create a warmer feel.

Filled and Unfilled Travertine

Travertine naturally has voids: you can select unfilled for a rustic look, or filled for a smoother look. Unfilled will collect dirt more easily. Filled is much more practical for the floor. Over time, there will be more voids in Travertine, which can be simply filled with Granite Gold Travertine Filler.

Stains vs. Etches

Stains are usually caused by oils or products with pigments, such as wine. If a natural stone is unsealed, these products will be absorbed and discoloration will occur. Etching is a chemical reaction that happens with an acid-base product such as lemon juice. When these products come in contact with a polished marble, Travertine, or Limestone, it will remove the factory finish even if it is sealed! It is a common misconception that a sealed stone is fully protected.

Granite Pits (holes)

Granites are made up of several different materials. Each with different hard nesses and composition. During the factory honing and finishing process, some of the weaker composites are removed, causing minute pits. This is not a defect, however, a natural occurrence, and does not compromise the integrity of the stone.

Fissures (natural cracks) in granite

These are caused by the heating and cooling of the stone (expansion and contraction). This is a natural occurrence during thermal and tectonic creation of the stone. Fissures can generally be identified as thin hairline cracks ranging in length from one to ten inches. This will not compromise the integrity of the stone.

Pits and Fissures (remedy)

The natural inclusions can be filled with color matching epoxy or clear resins. Wax based products such as camubas and bees wax can also be applied to cosmetically enhance the stone (disguise the inclusions). Sealing is the key to care for stone. Sealing is recommended at least once a year depending on the porosity of the stone. Sealing should be initially applied by a professional natural stone expert, ensuring proper application and guaranteed product performance. The homeowner should use Granite Gold Stone Care Systems for ongoing maintenance.

Scratches vs. Fractures

Surface scratches can be removed with diamond honing and resurfacing. Fractures may appear to be scratches however they are most often caused by heavy or sharp objects dragged across the stone concentrating all the pressure on one area.

Efflorescence

Is a white powder that may appear on the surface of the stone. It is caused by water carrying mineral salts from below the surface of the stone rising through the stone and evaporating. When the water evaporates, it leaves the powdery substance.

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